Gulams: Tahmasp had started introducing Georgian, Musketers: realizing the advantages that the Ottomans had because of their firearms, Shah Abbas was at pains to equip both the qurchi and the ghulam soldiers with up-to-date weaponry. The idea of such an anti-Ottoman alliance was not a new one—over a century before, Uzun Hassan, then ruler of part of Iran, had asked the Venetians for military aid—but none of the Safavids had made diplomatic overtures to Europe and Abbas’ attitude was in marked contrast to that of his grandfather, Tahmasp I, who had expelled the English traveller Anthony Jenkinson from his court on hearing he was a Christian. Martha’s mother Theodora—better known as Despina Khatun—was a Pontic Greek princess, the daughter of the Grand KomnenosJohn IV of Trebizond. After the death of Tahmāsp in 984/1576, the struggle for a dominant position in the state flared up again and was complicated by rival groups and factions. Most of the extant poetry of Shah Ismail I is in Azerbaijani pen-name of Khatai. Mir Damad is considered the founder of this school. The Chief Physician (Hakim-bashi) was a highly considered member of the Royal court, and the most revered astrologer of the court was given the title Munajjim-bashi (Chief Astrologer). This would not change with the Arab conquest of Iran, and it was primarily the Persians that took upon them the works of philosophy, logic, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, music and alchemy. She had been married to Uzun Hassan in exchange for protection of the Grand Komnenos from the Ottomans. They say their prayers and perform their rituals in the most devout manner. Pretty much everything you need to know about the Safavid Dynasty revolves around one of two things: 1. , Under the governance of the strong shahs, especially during the first half of the 17th century, traveling through Persia was easy because of good roads and the caravanserais, that were strategically placed along the route. He expanded commercial links with the English East India Companyand the Dutch East India Company. The Shah had stables in all the principal towns, and Shah Abbas was said to have about 30 000 horses in studs around the country. The arguably most renowned historian from this time was Iskandar Beg Munshi. , The one valuable item, sought for in Europe, which Iran possessed and which could bring in silver in sufficient quantities was silk, which was produced in the northern provinces, along the Caspian coastline.  Although Ismāil was defeated and his capital was captured, the Safavid empire survived. Mughal Empire. , In Safavid Persia there was little distinction between theology and jurisprudence, or between divine justice and human justice, and it all went under Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh). , As for the royal household, the highest post was that of the Nazir, Court Minister. In History. They are wedged between the Wealthiest empire of this period (the Mughals) and the longest lasting empire of all time (the Ottomans). More problematic for the Safavids was the powerful Ottoman Empire. Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power. As such, he was the last in the line of hereditary Grand Masters of the Safaviyeh order, prior to its ascent to a ruling dynasty. The status of physicians during the Safavids stood as high as ever. But it was Shah Safi, under influence by his Prime Minister, Saru Taqi, that initiated the program of trying to increase the royal revenues by buying land from the governors and putting in place local commissioners. Important land-based Gunpowder Empires of the era included Russia, Ming and Qing China, Japan, the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid Empire, and the Mughal Empire. In the 16th century, the Turcophone Safavid family of Ardabil in Azerbaijan, probably of Turkicized Iranian, origin, conquered Iran and established Turkic, the language of the court and the military, as a high-status vernacular and a widespread contact language, influencing spoken Persian, while written Persian, the language of high literature and civil administration, remained virtually unaffected in status and content.  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